Using species distribution models to select climate change resistant species for ecological restoration of bowé in West
Using species distribution models to select climate change resistant species for ecological restoration of bowé in Westwca2014-1330 Elie A. Padonou 1,*Brice Sinsin 1Yvonne Bachmann 2 1Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, 2Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Bowalization is a particular form of land degradation and leads to the lateral expansion of ferricrete horizons. The process occurs only in tropical regions. The term bowe refers to edaphic deserts. The adapted and robust species towards climate change on bowe were identified by taking down the most common present-day bowe species in both climate zones. Then these species were submitted together with significant environmental variables (the elevation and 19 current bioclimatic variables and the digital soil map of Benin) at a spatial resolution of 30s to the ecological niche model of Maxent (Maxent 3.3.3, Phillips et al. 2004). Altogether fifteenth woody and herb of the sub-humid and semiarid climate zones were used. For future prediction of the spatial distribution of the most common bowe species the IPCC4/CIAT climate data for 2050 were applied.In the semiarid climate zone, Asparagus africanus presented a stable performance in the three phytogeographical district (Atacora chain, Mekrou-Pendjari and North Borgou) while Andropogon pseudapricus and Combretum nigricans showed a wider potential distribution in 2050 than today. Hoslundia opposite, Crotalaria macrocalyx, Schizachyrium sanguineum, and Detarium microcarpum were modeled with a smaller potential distribution area in 2050 than today in the three phytogeographycal districts of this climate zone (table 2). Asparagus africanus Andropogon pseudapricus and Combretum nigricans species are the best for the restoration of bowé since the future climate will be suitable for them.In the phytogeographical district of Sub-humid climate zone (South Borgou, Bassila and Zou) Asparagus africanus was modeled with a similar extension for today and 2050. Detarium microcarpum and Lannea microcarpa will potentially be distributed more widely except in Bassila while Asystasia gangetica is potentially encountering more favourable environmental conditions in the future (2050) in South Borgou and Bassila. Combretum collinum, Combretum nigricans, Ctenium newtonii, Indigofera bracteolate and Schizachyrium sanguineum will be potentially less distributed in Bassila and South Borgou while Indigofera bracteolate will be potentially less distributed according to the model in the three phytogeographical districts of the Sub-humid zone. Asparagus africanus, Detarium microcarpum and Lannea microcarpa are the best species for restoration in the sub-humid climate zone as the future climate condition will be suitable for them.